Marxist theory (particularly Friedrich Engels) says that hunter-gatherer societies practiced a form of primitive communism based on common property based on a vital minimum. [Citation required] Common ownership of the means of production eliminates the motive of profit and introduces the motive for promoting human prosperity. As the surplus generated by workers is the property of society as a whole, there are no classes of producers and anaigners. Since the state had its origins in the gangs of retainers hired by the first ruling classes to protect their economic privilege, it was diminished because its conditions of existence had disappeared.    Marxism and socialism have been highly critically analysed by several generations of Austrian economists in terms of scientific methodology, economic theory and the political implications of many generations of Austrian economists.   During the marginal revolution, subjective value theory was rediscovered by Carl Menger, an evolution that profoundly undermined British cost theories of value. [Citation required] The restoration of subjectivism and praxological methodology previously used by classical economists such as Richard Cantillon, Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot, Jean-Baptiste Say and Frédéric Bastiat led Menger to criticize the historist methodology in general. The Austrian economist Eugen Boehm of the second generation of Bawerk has put in place a praxological and subjectivist methodology to fundamentally attack the right of value. Gottfried Haberler considered his criticism to be “definitive” and argued that Bhm-Bawerk`s criticism of Marx`s economy was so “deep and devastating” that he believes that no Marxist scholar has conclusively refuted it since the 1960s.  The third-generation Austrian Ludwig von Mises revived the debate on the problem of economic calculation by arguing that, without price signals on capital goods, he believed that all other aspects of the market economy were irrational.
This led him to declare that “rational economic activity is impossible in a socialist community.”  The history of any current society is the history of class struggles. Freeman and slave, Patrizier and Plebeian, Lord and Serf, master of corporation and companion, with a word, oppressor and oppressed, constantly opposed each other, continuing to fight, now hidden, now openly, a struggle that ended each time, either in a revolutionary re-enactment of society in general or in the common ruins of the conflicting classes. The first Church of Jerusalem shared all its money and good (Acts of the Apostles 2 and 4).   Inspired by early Christians, many Christians have since tried to follow their example of communion of goods and common goods.  Common property is practiced by certain Christian groups such as the Hutterites (for about 500 years), the Court of Brothers (for about 100 years) and others.   In these cases, the property is generally owned by a charity created for the purpose of preserving members of religious groups.   The resemblance and resemblance between Gandhism and Marxism are the same: according to a 2007 survey by Neil Gross and Solon Simmons, 17.6% of social science professors and 5.0% of mind teachers identify themselves as Marxists, while in all other disciplines, between 0 and 2% of professors identify themselves as Marxists.  Shared ownership relates to the fact that the heritage of an organization, business or community is not held as joint property on behalf of each member or group of members.