Table 1 presents summary statistics. As can be seen, 5% of all agreements were concluded between 1982 and 2012 in the form of a treaty, which characterizes the use of the treaty. 20% of all agreements were cancelled during the observation period. The average agreement was valid for 15.26 years. Of the agreements that are no longer in force, the average shelf life is 7.3 years. The LPPC values are between 17 and 17, with an average value of 0.10 euros. On average, 50 per cent of Senate seats were held by the presidential party at the time the agreement was signed. In 71 percent of the agreements, the government was divided, with the White House held by one party, the Senate, the House of Representatives or both by the other. Taken together, these figures indicate that the average agreement could not have been adopted in the form of a treaty without multi-party support, making the treaty a potentially costly instrument. 82 Hathaway, supra note 1, at 1259 (“[S]eparating executive agreements that are congressionally authorized from those that are not required a akribisch search for authorizing legislation.

In order to determine whether an agreement is an agreement between Congress and the executive branch, it is necessary to go through The Statutes of Large before the effective date of the agreement for terms related to this topic. It is then necessary to read each statute to determine whether it actually approves the relevant international agreements. (Footnote omitted). Future research could remedy this limitation by sorting agreements to a more detailed level than is possible for the excitement of TIF data. A particularly promising approach could result from the detailed content of individual agreements. Analysis of the text of the agreements would allow researchers to distinguish, for example, bilateral tax treaties aimed at avoiding double taxation, which are often concluded in the form of contracts, and other types of tax treaties. The databases necessary to carry out these studies exist, footnote 105, but it has not been possible to consistently read and classify several thousand international agreements. Recent advances in computerized text analysis could prove successful in overcoming this restriction.

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