In 2005, a new decree on the electrification of rural areas was adopted (Supreme Decree 28567). The new decree aims to increase access to rural areas through the development and compression of electricity grids, the development of renewable energies and a change in the energy mix (replacing diesel with natural gas, biomass and other renewable energies) and increasing distribution capacity. The decree on the electrification of rural areas and the regulatory framework associated with it encourage energy stakeholders to partner with other government authorities to implement the rural electrification plan. An agreement between the Ministry of Public Works, Services and Housing and the Ministry of Education has allowed the installation of photovoltaic installations in rural areas, in conjunction with the literacy programme “I can” (Yo`Puedo). The 2012 border programme was the third binational agreement adopted under the 1983 La Paz Agreement. Border 2012 was launched in April 2003 by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Mexico`s Secreta de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (SEMARNAT). The program has completed more than 400 projects with a community-based approach that prioritizes the most serious environmental and health concerns reported by residents and workers along the common border region. The additional protocol is not a stand-alone agreement, but a protocol to a guarantee agreement that provides additional instruments for verification. In particular, it increases the IAEA`s ability to examine the peaceful use of nuclear materials in states that have comprehensive safeguard agreements. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and another treaty of 1884 were the agreements that were originally responsible for the colonization of the international border, both of which claimed that the centre of Rio Grande was the border, regardless of changes in canals or banks. The Rio Grande moved south between 1852 and 1868, the most radical displacement of the river took place after a flood in 1864.

Until 1873, the average moving river border had cut off about 2.4 square kilometres of Mexican territory in the El Paso-Juarez region and had in fact transferred the country to the United States. Through a treaty negotiated in 1963, Mexico took over most of that country in the so-called Chamizal conflict and transferred 1.07 square kilometres to the United States. Border treaties are jointly managed by the International Commission on Borders and Water (IBWC), established in 1889 to preserve the border, to distribute river water between the two nations and provide protection against flooding and sanitation. Once seen as a model of international cooperation, the IBWC has been strongly criticized in recent decades as an institutional anachronism bypassed by modern social, ecological and political issues. [7] According to Mexican political scientist Armand Peschard-Sverdrup, legal issues relating to water rights in the Rio Grande Valley have continued to create tensions between farmers along the border. [15] [16] IbWC focuses on the sanitation, distribution and protection of natural river waters and the distribution of borders between the United States and Mexico. [9] Contracts and agreements focus in depth on the distribution of water from the Rio Grande, the Colorado River, the Tijuana River, La Santa Cruz and other water components flowing into these rivers. These bodies of water must be maintained on both sides at their own expense. The IBWC also protects land along the river from flooding caused by dike and flood projects. [8] Each country has expanded its IBWC divisions to include organizations within its flood, pollution and waste deterrence department. These divisions include sewage treatment plants, dams,, emergency services, data recording services and field offices. [8] Most Latin American governments were skeptical of the III because their hegemonic country-building projects were based on the ideas of the 19th century

Close Menu