The dialogue at the highest level continued with the visit of the Prime Minister of the People`s Republic of China, Li Peng, to India in December 1991, and the visit to China of Indian President R. Venkataraman in May 1992. Between December 1988 and June 1993, six roundtables were organized by the Joint Indo-China Working Group on the Issue of Borders. Progress has also been made in easing tensions at the border, through reciprocal troop reductions, regular meetings of local military commanders and prior notifications of military exercises. In July 1992, Sharad Pawar visited Beijing, India`s Prime Minister of Defense. The consulates in Bombay (Mumbai) and Shanghai were reopened in December 1992. The English text of the protocol, signed in New Delhi on 11 April 2005, is on the bilateral/multilateral documents page of the Indian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MEA). A copy and summary of the protocol can also be accessed in the UNITED Nations Peacemakers Database and the AP-X Peace Agreement database. The aim of the protocol is to implement previous agreements and “modalities for implementing confidence-building measures, including through procedures for exchanging information on troop movements and holding semi-annual meetings on border issues.” They also agreed to resolve by diplomatic means any violation of the treaty or a solution. The first records of contact between China and India were written during the 2nd century BC. Buddhism was transferred from India to China in the 1st century AD.  Trade relations on the Silk Road were seen as an economic contact between the two regions. The 15 June border conflict reportedly took place during an obvious “de-escalation process”, weeks after “high-ranking military commanders from both countries” agreed on 6 June to “peacefully resolve the situation in the border areas, in accordance with various bilateral agreements”.
The collision on the ridge reportedly involved hand-to-hand combat with iron bars, stones and fists, resulting in the deaths of 20 Indian soldiers and an unknown number of Chinese soldiers. While neither side carried rifles, most of the soldiers killed in the fighting lost their footing or were pushed by the narrow back of the Himalayas and fell to death. These are the first deaths along the LAC since 1975. I am honoured to receive your note of April 29, 1954, which says: [Not reproduced] On behalf of the Central Government of the People`s Republic of China, I agree with the note of Your Excellency and your note, accompanied by this note in response, becomes an agreement between our two governments that will come into force when these notes are exchanged. I would like to take this opportunity to express your excellence: in October 1954, the two countries signed a trade agreement which, according to experts, strongly favoured China.  Nehru attempted to initiate a more direct dialogue between the peoples of China and India in culture and literature. It was around this time that the famous Indian artist Beohar Rammanohar Sinha, who had previously decorated the pages of the Indian constitution, was sent to China in 1957 with a grant from the Indian government to build a direct intercultural and intercivilist bridge.